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Golf Balls
Golf BallGolf balls are made to meet specifications laid down by two controlling bodies which are the Royal & Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews (R & A) and the United States Golf Association (USGA). Both bodies specify that the ball must weigh not more than 45.9 g (1.62 oz) but the specification for diameter differs as follows:

R & A Not less than 41.15 mm (1.62 in)
USGA Not less than 42.67 mm (1.68 in)

The USGA additionally specifies that the golf ball must not leave a projection apparatus of their own design at a speed greater than 77.8 m/s (225 ft/s), and this sets an upper limit on resilience for the 42.67 mm ball.

The smaller and heavier a ball the further it will go. Manufacturers (in particular, those making the 41.15 mm balls) are therefore encouraged to make balls as near as possible to maximum weight and minimum size allowable so as to achieve maximum flight length.

Ball structures break down broadly into two categories: wound balls, which are the conventional ball and the solid ball.
Conventional Golf Balls
Conventional Wound Golf Balls These balls are made from tightly stretched rubber thread wound around one of two kinds of cores: a liquid centre, where the core is liquid-filled; or a solid centre, in which the core is made of synthetic rubber. The ball is completed by molding on a protective cover, which incorporates the surface pattern. Generally, this ball excel in spin performance, but fall short in terms of distance and durability.
Solid Golf Balls
One-piece balls These balls are made of a single, high-restitution synthetic rubber Because these balls deform to a large degree at impact, they lose a great deal of the energy required for carry and consequently offer less distance than balls built with different structures. Primarily used for driving-range
Two-piece balls These balls consist of a cover and a solid core. This configuration enables the energy at impact to be transferred efficiently to the ball in flight. Because the cover itself is made of a high-restitution material, these balls generate excellent distance.
Three-piece or multi-layer balls These are multi-layer balls in which the core material is wrapped in multiple covers. As a result of the latest advances in technology, manufacturers are now able to flexibly combine materials, degrees of hardness, specific gravity, and so on, in ways that enhances a variety of performance features.
Manufacturing Process

Golf BallCore Material
Golf balls consist of two parts, core and the cover. The core can be made from rubber or thermoplastic elastomer compound. It is then wound with thread and the winding process dictates the velocity of the ball's core. The core can also be made with just the rubber without the wounded thread. However the formulation of the ingredients blended into the solid core is critical to the velocity of the golf ball. The solid core is a high-resiliency rubber compound with blends of natural and synthetic rubber. The compound is extruded, rolled and cut into sheets, extruded into blanks and moulded into spheres. At the final core finishing, every core is ground with a centerless grinding machine (similar to billiard balls manufacturing).

Cover Material
The cover materials can be made from elastomer or thermoplastic material. The elastomer cover material provides a soft feel and spin as well as durability. As for the thermoplastic resin cover, this material offers excellent cut and abrasion resistance and available in a wide range of hardness and flexibility. Blends of thermoplastic can also be used to vary the performance options in spin rate, feel and durability. Performance characteristics are from high spin/soft feel to low spin/longer distance.

Moulding Process
Two processes can be used, injection and compression moulding. In the injection moulding process, the core is held within a mould cavity by pins. The cover material (thermoplastic) is injected into the cavity and the blend is melted with heat and pressure and then injected into a cold mould where it freezes into the cup shape. As the resin begins to cool and harden, the pins are retracted. After the resin has sufficiently cooled, the moulded ball is ejected from the mould.

In the compression moulding, the resin is first formed into half-shells and assembled around either a wound centre or a solid core. The assemblies are then placed in a mould and subjected to high pressure and temperatures. During this stage, the half-shells are fused together and the dimples are pressed into the cover materials. This method yields more consistent core centering, fewer cosmetic defects and more uniform product.

Some materials require painting but thermoplastic resins can be blended with colours during the processing to give the desired colour.

Other Info
  Processing Flow Chart
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